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Cold pole Skagerrak –Winter 1940/41!

 Did man contributed?


Many believe in natural climate variability. 70 years ago the winter in the Skagerrak region was extreme cold. (see: Fig.; D/J/F 1940/41, NASA/Giss). The January 1941 was the coldest at many places in Norway ever observed (Hesselberg, TH., and Birkeland, B.J., 1944), and the by far lowest at all stations around the Skagerrak. An all time record was measured at Oslo/Blindern (-26°C), and Viborg/Denmark (–30°C). Is assuming a purely natural cause a mistake?

               The 1930s had been the warmest since the Little Ice Age. That turned suddenly to the coldest winters in Europe in the moment World War II started in September 1939. The first war winter became the coldest in Northern Europe for more than 100 years. The third even succeeded the 1st war winter, particularly in Eastern Europe. Towards the end of this two winters naval activities run high in the North and Baltic Sea. That was quite different prior the winter 1940/41. The Baltic Sea had had a year without belligerent activities. But since early April 1940 the Germans sailed with huge naval forces northwards to conquer Norway. For the rest of the year the sea areas along Norway was a battle ground from the Skagerrak to Narvik. Uncountable naval activities penetrated the sea over considerable depths.
              The cold could have happen only due to a lack of heat reserve in the sea area from Dover to Bergen. Presumably the Skagerrak has contributed as well. Further more, the southern coast of Norway the sea has a depths of up the 700 meters, with a temperature difference to the surface of more than 10°C  in August (see Fig.2). Any mixing up side down would cool the surface layer as well. Has this combination contributed to the record winter conditions in the countries around the Skagerrak (Fig.3)?

              From a climatologically point of view, the event possibly marks a great failure of atmospheric science. Did naval activities in 1940 have anything to do with the cold center around the Skagerrak? If that would be proved one day, it would be shocking. Human activities moderated the winter 1940/41 seven decades ago, and science and the general public do not know. Man or ‘natural climate variability’: that is a great question.

 For details see: ”Occupation of Norway - Return of Ice Age (3_11)”


 Figure Sources and parameters: GHCN_GISS_ERSST_1200km_Anom1203_1940_1941_1900_1939

Chapter: 3_11

Book Page: 153

File: 796

Image: NOAA/ER_v3b

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